Aluminum, chemical element with atomic number 13 and symbol Al. It is a ductile silver metal. It is generally found in the form of bauxite ore in nature and is known for its superior resistance to oxidation. Passivation feature underlies this resistance. It is used in the production of millions of different products in many branches of the industry and has a very important place in the world economy. Structural components made of aluminum are indispensable for the aerospace and aviation industry. It finds wide use in the transportation and construction industry, which requires lightness and high strength properties.
Aluminum is a soft and light metal with a matt silvery color. This color is due to the thin oxide layer that forms when exposed to air. Aluminum is non-toxic and non-magnetic. It does not spark. While the tensile strength of pure aluminum is about 49 megapascals (MPa), this value increases to 700 MPa when alloyed. Its density is about one-third that of steel or copper. It can be forged, machined and cast easily. It has very superior corrosion properties, it is because the oxide layer formed on it is protective. The electrical conductivity is 64.94% IACS (pure Al at 2 ° C). Its melting temperature is 660 ° C and its boiling temperature is 2519 ° C.
Aluminum extrusion is the definition of shaping a material by forcing aluminum to flow through a hole shaped in a mold. After extrusion, the shape of the die is applied along the aluminum. Aluminum extrusion can basically be likened to the squeezing of the toothpaste tube and the resulting paste taking the shape of the cap hole. Here, preheating the aluminum tickets in the extrusion process allows the aluminum to be easily formed and the press pressure reduced.
Aluminum Extrusion Process Steps
- The way aluminum profiles enter the process as a raw material is called a ticket. Aluminum tickets are heated to 350 – 500 degrees C.
- After the ticket reaches the desired temperature, the lubricant is transferred as a thin film on it. It will prevent the mold and material from sticking to each other due to heat.
- Transferred to the ticket carrier
- Ticket logs are pushed sequentially into the ram container
Aluminum ticket billets, which are larger than the mold, are crushed by the opposite mold while in full contact with the bearing walls. As the aluminum is pushed through the mold, liquid nitrogen flows around the mold to cool the process. In some cases, nitrogen gas is used instead of liquid nitrogen.
- As a result of the pressure, the ticket aluminum starts to be squeezed out of the cavity of the mold.
- During the extrusion process, the temperature is measured and recorded instantaneously. The purpose of knowing the temperature is to maintain maximum pressure velocities. The target outlet temperature in extrusion also depends on the alloy of aluminum. E.g. 6063, 6463, 6063A, and 6101 için çıkış sıcaklığı en az 500 C dir
- During extrusion drawing, the extrusion outlet is cooled by a series of fans along the length of the cooling table
- The oxidized part is discarded on the ticket bill.
- When the extrusion reaches the desired length, the extrusion profile is cut with the help of a saw.
- It is transferred on the metal cooling table.
- After moving and cooling along the aluminum table, the aluminum is subjected to hardening and alignment processes.
- The next step is the cutting saw. The extrusion is transferred to a stretched saw blade and cut into certain lengths. The cutting tolerance on the saw is around 0.8 cm.
After the parts are cut, they are transported into the furnaces and the aluminum is hardened in a controlled temperature environment.
Aluminum Extrusion History
Aluminum extrusion has been used for many innovative methods up to 100 years ago. The extrusion process was done manually at the end of the nineteenth century until the discovery of hydraulic power pressure in 1820. Patented in 1797, extrusion methods were used for brass-copper alloys, but a unique route was followed for aluminum.
Aluminum is relatively young compared to metals such as copper, bronze, iron and steel that have been in use for thousands of years. Aluminum, which was first refined in 1825, was identified as a metal element in 1807. In those years, aluminum was considered a luxury metal like gold.
The Development of Aluminum Extrusion
Alexander Dick invented the modern hot extrusion process for most non-ferrous alloys in 1894. Hot and cold extrusion are most commonly used today. In 1904, the first aluminum extrusion press in Pennsylvania was used in the production of automotive parts in the United States.
During the Second World War, aluminum production increased significantly in order to meet the increasing demand in aircraft manufacturing and other military requirements, and this led to the production of new extrusion presses.
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